Cutting fluids are generally divided into two types: oil-based and water-based. Oil-based cutting fluid, also known as cutting oil,
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has good lubrication and anti-rust performance, but poor cooling and cleaning performance. When used for magnesium alloy cutting, it may easily cause chips to stick to the knife and even burn and explode. It is rarely used now. Water-based cutting fluids can be divided into three types: emulsion, semi-synthetic and fully-synthetic based on the content of the base oil:
(1) Emulsion, semi-synthetic cutting fluid.
Emulsions and semi-synthetic fluids have basically replaced cutting oils due to their good lubricity and low prices, and are widely used in metal machining. However, there are the following problems in the machining of magnesium alloys:
Emulsion and semi-synthetic fluids have poor cooling performance in the cutting area, which cannot effectively reduce the temperature of the machining area, which can easily lead to tool sticking, accelerate tool wear, shorten tool life, and even burn.
Emulsion and semi-synthetic liquid have relatively poor cleaning performance, which is not conducive to chip removal, and it is easy to scratch the surface of the processed workpiece, resulting in increased roughness; at the same time, it is easy to adhere to the surface of the workpiece and the machine tool.
In the cutting process, the magnesium alloy reacts with water to generate a large amount of magnesium ions, which easily causes the anionic emulsifiers, polar additives and other components to fail, resulting in the instability of the cutting fluid and the reduction of machining performance; and the precipitates are easy to adhere. Contamination occurs on the surface of the workpiece.
(2) Fully synthetic cutting fluid.
Fully synthetic cutting fluid does not contain base oil and emulsifiers. It is a thermodynamically stable system. Compared with emulsions and semi-synthetic fluids, fully synthetic cutting fluids are more suitable for magnesium alloy cutting. Its use features are as follows. Good cooling performance can quickly reduce the temperature of the cutting zone, reduce tool wear, and extend tool life.
The surface active ingredient content is high, the cleaning performance is good, the chip removal ability is strong, and it will not stick to the surface of the machine tool and workpiece. The stability is good, and the system can still be stable even in a high-hard water environment, and it is not easy to produce precipitates.
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